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Exploring unix using the Mac
You are not directly subscribed to this bug's notifications. Other bug subscribers Subscribe someone else. Bug attachments Dependencies. Remote bug watches savannah Edit Bug watches keep track of this bug in other bug trackers. You need to log in to change this bug's status. Affecting: grep. The information about this bug in Launchpad is automatically pulled daily from the remote bug.
POSIX allows this behavior as an extension, but portable scripts should avoid it. This lists all lines in the files menu. See Regular Expressions. See Invoking , for more details about how to invoke grep. For more control over which files are searched, use find , grep , and xargs. For example, the following command searches only C files:. For example:. If the pattern had been written without the square brackets, it would have matched not only the ps output line for cron , but also the ps output line for grep. Note that on some platforms, ps limits the output to the width of the screen; grep does not have any limit on the length of a line except the available memory.
So GNU grep suppresses output from files that appear to be binary files. To list the names of all files that contain no matching lines, use the -L or --files-without-match option. The grep command searches for lines that contain strings that match a pattern. Every line contains the empty string, so an empty pattern causes grep to find a match on each line. It can be done by using back-references; for example, a palindrome of 4 characters can be written with a BRE:. The second alternate in this example can only match if the first alternate has matched—making the second one superfluous. Standard grep cannot do this, as it is fundamentally line-based.
Therefore, merely using the [:space:] character class does not match newlines in the way you might expect.
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Thus, you can match newlines in the input, but typically if there is a match the entire input is output, so this usage is often combined with output-suppressing options like -q , e. If this does not suffice, you can transform the input before giving it to grep , or turn to awk , sed , perl , or many other utilities that are designed to operate across lines.
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The name grep comes from the way line editing was done on Unix. For example, ed uses the following syntax to print a list of matching lines on the screen:. Typically grep is an efficient way to search text. However, it can be quite slow in some cases, and it can search large files where even minor performance tweaking can help significantly. Although the algorithm used by grep is an implementation detail that can change from release to release, understanding its basic strengths and weaknesses can help you improve its performance.
The grep command operates partly via a set of automata that are designed for efficiency, and partly via a slower matcher that takes over when the fast matchers run into unusual features like back-references.
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When feasible, the Boyer—Moore fast string searching algorithm is used to match a single fixed pattern, and the Aho—Corasick algorithm is used to match multiple fixed patterns. Generally speaking grep operates more efficiently in single-byte locales, since it can avoid the special processing needed for multi-byte characters. On some operating systems that support files with holes—large regions of zeros that are not physically present on secondary storage— grep can skip over the holes efficiently without needing to read the zeros.
For more about the algorithms used by grep and about related string matching algorithms, see:.
Bug reports can be found at the GNU bug report logs for grep. If you find a bug not listed there, please email it to bug-grep gnu. In addition, certain other obscure regular expressions require exponential time and space, and may cause grep to run out of memory. In short, you have the right freedom to run and change grep and distribute it to other people, and—if you want—charge money for doing either.
The important restriction is that you have to grant your recipients the same rights and impose the same restrictions. This general method of licensing software is sometimes called open source. This manual is free documentation in the same sense. The documentation license is included below. The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License.
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It supports text files and other major file formats pdf, doc x , xls x , etc. Here is a detailed documentation on how it works. More information can view on Github.
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Linux grep command help and examples
Asked 9 years, 11 months ago. Active 4 months ago. Viewed k times. Chealion Paul Sheldrake Paul Sheldrake 1, 10 10 gold badges 28 28 silver badges 30 30 bronze badges. You can't do this from the spotlight icon in the menu bar. But you can do it with spotlight: Navigate to the folder in the finder.
Type your search in the search bar on the top right of the folder. There is a line above the results that says: Search: This Mac "Your Folder Name" Click on the name of your folder to restrict the search to the folder instead of the whole computer, which is what the default selection "This Mac" does.
Then click the gear icon, choose show search criteria, and change the kind to text files. Aram Did you figure out how to do an "AND"? I'm searching for "My cat mittens" and it's finding everything that has "My" or "cat" or "mittens" and NOT my exact phrase. EDIT - add quotes around it. If you prefer the command line, grep "my string of text" -R. In my.